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Roots and Soil

By Bruce Rottink, Volunteer Nature Guide & Retired Research Forester

All photos by the author unless noted.

 

The forest at Tryon Creek State Natural Area (TCSNA) is literally rooted in the soil.  What happens below the surface of the ground is vitally important to the forest, but something which is generally hidden from us.  Rarely, Mother Nature provides us with a glimpse into her underground world, and it can be very enlightening.

 

The Root System Revealed

In late September of 2013, a little more than 5 years ago, a tree growing by the side of the road leading up to the “Horse Lot” at TCSNA blew over during a rainy, stormy period.  Seizing the opportunity, I started studying this event, with the idea of creating a series of Natural Notes possibly stretching over many years.

When the tree blew over, the root system was revealed.  Photos taken within 2 or 3 days of the blowdown are shown below.

photo 1

Bottom of the root wad of the fallen tree.

 

photo 2

Pool of water at the base of fallen tree a couple of days after the tree fell.

 

After the tree fell over, for at least a couple of days afterwards, there was a pool of water covering the clay layer exposed when the tree had fallen over.  It turns out that the soil under this tree, just like most of the soil at TCSNA, has only about a 2 to 3 foot layer of soil suitable for growing plants, underlain by a thick layer of clay.  This clay is very resistant to water flow and root growth.  For safety reasons, the Park Staff filled in this hole shortly after the tree fell over.  The photo below gives an indication of the size of the root wad.  The red arrows show moderate- to large-sized roots growing horizontally, not downwards, because they hit the clay layer.

 

photo 3

The author (5’10” tall) by root wad just after the hole it created had been filled in.

— Photo by Anonymous Park Visitor

 

I measured the thickness of the root wad within a week of when the tree fell over.  I did this by pounding a thick metal rod through the root wad, and measuring how much of the rod stuck out of the soil.  A picture of this method is shown below.  I pushed the rod through the root at 4 different locations, both 2 and 3 feet on either side of the trunk of the downed tree.  On average, the thickness of the root wad was 24-1/2 inches.

 

photo 4

Side view of fallen root wad, showing end of a metal rod I pushed through the root wad.

 

As you can see, there are no roots growing straight down out of the root mass.  The clay layer beneath this tree was not hospitable.

 

The Aging Root Wad

Five years after the tree blew down, I returned to the site, and measured the thickness of the root wad again, in the same way I had measured it when the tree first fell down.  In the 5 years since it fell over, the soil on the root wad was 4.9 inches thinner than it was when it first fell down.  Based on other trees that have fallen over in the forest, like this one along the Maple Ridge Trail shown below, I anticipate that sooner or later, all the soil will be washed off the skeletal root system.

 

photo 4a

Head-on view of fallen tree’s root system along Middle Creek Trail.

 

photo 5

Side view of fallen tree’s root system along Middle Creek Trail.

 

An Underground Dam

These root systems all raise questions about the depth of the “plant friendly” soil, which in much of the park, seems to be pretty shallow.  In many cases of fallen trees, the soil which is exposed is substantially clay.  Clay of course is resistant to water flow.  Just how resistant?  I collected a sample of clay from the root system of a tree that had recently fallen at TCSNA.

At home, I drilled holes in the bottom of a plastic cup, as shown below.  Water flowed easily through the holes as you can see in the picture below.

 

photo 6

Holes in bottom of plastic cup.

 

photo 7

Water flowing easily through holes in bottom of plastic cup.

 

For my test, I put about 1/3 of an inch of clay into the pot, and gently pressed it down into the pot.  Then I filled the pot with water.  There was some tiny amount of water that flowed through the holes but not much.  I let the pot sit with water in it for a couple of days.  Then I once again filled the pot with water and let it sit inside of a plastic tray.  I sat the pot on two pencil stubs to keep the bottom of the pot up off the tray, so water could easily run out of the holes.  This is illustrated below.  I left out the plastic tray in order that you could see the rest of the set-up more easily.

 

photo 8

Plastic cup with holes in bottom covered by soil composed mostly of clay.

 

In the course of 20 hours, not a single drop of water leaked out of the cup.  The clay used in this demonstration is clay that is found underground throughout much of TCSNA.

The nearly impenetrable layer of clay found at TCSNA means that the forest we love is dependent on approximately the top two feet of soil.  To put this in perspective, when leading hikes for students at the Park, I will oftentimes ask them this question:  What would they think if I went to Washington Square and dumped 2 feet of dirt on top of the asphalt parking lot, and declared that I was going to start growing a forest there?  Almost always the kids will say something like “You are crazy!”  But in fact, that is essentially the situation we have here at the Park.

The photo below shows me with a cardboard box the same height (24.5”) as the depth of soil supporting the trees at TCSNA.  This is the depth of soil I would pour onto the parking lot in order to create a forest at Washington Square Mall like that at TCSNA.

 

photo 9

The author demonstrating his plans for a forest on Washington Square’s Parking Lot.

 

The thin layer of soil supporting the forest at TCSNA is one reason that the trees need to shelter each other if they are going to resist being blown down by the wind.  They really do constitute a “Forest Community.”

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Water, Water Everywhere

Editor’s Note: Miss the Pacific Northwest rain? It’s been 48 days (June 21st) since measurable precipitation at Tryon Creek State Natural Area. Enjoy this post about rainfall in the forest!

Article by Bruce Rottink, Volunteer Nature Guide and Retired Research Forester

 

Mention “water” to anyone at Tryon Creek State Natural Area (TCSNA), and they will probably think of either the drinking fountain at the Nature Center, or Tryon Creek itself.  However, we may need to consider other things in the park when someone brings up the topic of water.  We can start by looking at the water cycle in the forest.

 

Here Comes the Rain

We are fortunate to be in an area with a pretty good rainfall.  Sometimes it just drizzles, and sometimes it pours down.  The first question is “where does the rain go?”  Well, that depends on how heavy the rainfall is.  This past April, I temporarily set up rain gauges at TCSNA when the forecast called for a rainy period for the next couple of days.  I set up 2 rain gauges several feet apart under a large western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla) and then placed a third rain gauge in a clearing less than 50 feet from the tree.  I repeated this process with a large western redcedar (Thuja plicata).  I checked the rain gauges after about a day of rain, and then again after 3 total days of rain.  The results of both the redcedar and hemlock are combined and illustrated below:

Photo 1

Water measured during the first 26 hours of rain.

 

Photo 2

Water measured during 26 to 72 hours after rain started.

 

It was astonishing to me that during the first 26 hours of rainfall totaling more than a third of an inch, that almost none of the rainfall penetrated the canopy of either tree.  Okay, yeah, I know that when it starts to rain you head under a tree for shelter.  But, I was surprised at how effective these under-tree shelters were.  Even in the following two more days of rain, only a small portion of the water penetrated the canopy.   For this three day event, only 18% of the total rainfall penetrated the canopy.  No wonder there are few plants growing under mature trees of these two species.

 

Photo 3

Two rain gauges amidst the limited vegetation growing under a western redcedar at TCSNA.

 

I checked 2017 daily rainfall data collected by the City of Lake Oswego2 in downtown Lake Oswego, just a few miles from the park.  The total annual rainfall was 53.13 inches.  Based on my measurements during that one rain event, let’s assume that any daily rainfall of less than 0.35” will never hit the ground under these mature trees.  In 2017, these light rains amounted to 25.9% of the total annual rainfall.  Based on the information gathered in this study, none of that ever made it through the canopy.  These means that plants growing under the canopy of redcedars and hemlocks experience a much different rainfall environment than other plants.

 

However, there can be lateral water movement in the soil once it hits the ground.  To check that, I collected soil cores from beneath both the hemlock and the western redcedar.  Under the redcedar the soil contained less water than in the surrounding areas beyond the redcedar’s canopy.  For the hemlock, there was no difference between the under-the-canopy and outside-the-canopy soil water.  This may have been due to the fact that the hemlock was growing on a significant slope, and the redcedar was growing in a flat area.  Any rainfall uphill from the hemlock, probably traveled through the soil downhill to the hemlock.

 

And these aren’t the only species of plants that intercept the falling rain.  Even our native Indian plum (Oemleria cerasiformis) seems to keep a lot of rain from ever hitting the ground, as seen in the picture below.

Photo 4

Rainwater beading up on Indian plum leaves at TCSNA.

 

However, all is not lost.  Numerous documents in the scientific literature point out that many plants can absorb water not just through their roots, but also through their leaves and needles.

 

Soil Water 

An important function of the soil is to hold water for the plants to use.  The forest at TCSNA is growing on soil that includes a significant layer of clay about 2-1/2 feet below the surface.  Thus we see in some toppled over trees that the roots don’t go deep into the soil, but rather, tend to hit the clay layer and then begin to grow horizontally.

Photo 5

Toppled over bigleaf maple at TCSNA, showing depth of roots is only 24 inches.

 

To determine how much water the soil holds, I used a soil corer to collect samples of only the top foot of soil at 21 locations at TCSNA.  Thus this estimate of total water in the soil is VERY low, perhaps less than half of the water in the entire soil structure found at TCSNA.  The approximate sampling locations are indicated on the map below.

Photo 6

Red Xs mark the locations of soil samples used in this report.

 

I took the soil samples home and put them in plastic bowls to air dry.  I weighed them periodically until they stopped losing weight.  Then I calculated how much water was in the top 12 inches of soil at TCSNA.  Then I carefully recalculated it 5 more times, because the answer astonished me.  At the time I collected the soil samples, there was enough water in the top 12 inches of soil at TCSNA to fill 68 Olympic-sized swimming pools.

Photo 7

Water in the top 12 inches of soil at TCSNA could fill 68 Olympic-sized swimming pools.

 

Plant Water

All plants need water to stay alive.  As in humans, water is a key, and most often the dominant component of every plant.  With the permission of TCSNA personnel, I collected the above ground parts of some plants, or parts of plants, and determined how much water they contained.  The process was that I collected the plants in the forest, stuck them in a plastic bag, and immediately took them home and weighed them.  Then I let them air dry in my garage.  I periodically took the weights of each drying plant until the weight remained constant.  Then I calculated the percent of water in the fresh plant.  In a few cases the results were frankly surprising.

Photo 8

Latin Names not already noted:  (Oregon grape, Mahonia nervosa; thimbleberry, Rubus parviflorus; swordfern, Polystichum munitum; horsetail, Equisetum sp.; red alder, Alnus rubra; English ivy, Hedera helix; waterleaf, Hydrophyllum tenuipes; jewelweed,  Impatiens capensis;)

 

Plants contain a lot of water.  Based on some samples I collected near the creek, if the entire park were covered in jewelweed about 4 feet tall (a typical mature height for this plant, the amount of water in the jewelweed would be more than enough to fill 1-1/4 Olympic sized swimming pools.

 

Both waterleaf and jewelweed will, under moist conditions, exude water from the edges of their leaves, especially on cool mornings.  This is illustrated below (and no, it didn’t rain just before I took this picture).

Photo 9

Water droplets being exuded from large veins and collecting on the margins of Pacific waterleaf at TCSNA.

 

The flip side of this is that waterleaf tends to wilt fairly easily on hot, dry days, as illustrated below.

Photo 10

Waterleaf plants getting droopy on a hot, dry summery day at TCSNA.

 

In another spate of plant drying activity, I included the leaves of three species, and measured them on a schedule to compare how fast the leaves dried.  The results are presented below.

Photo 11

The salal dried dramatically more slowly than either the elderberry or vine maple.  This is not surprising because the salal leaves are much tougher than the other leaves.  Salal is the only species of these three that holds its leaves over the winter.

 

It’s a wet, wet world

Water is unquestionably the dominant component of life on earth.  The prominence of water in plants is documented above.  Human beings, like me, and hopefully you, have been reported to contain somewhere between 55% and 60% water, with higher levels for infants.  It is an amazing fluid that dissolves important nutrients, makes our cells turgid, and performs many other useful functions.  Next time you see a rain cloud coming, be sure to step outside and say thanks.

 

 

1Water, water everywhere,

And all the boards did shrink.

Water, water everywhere,

Nor any drop to drink.”

—- from The Ryme of the Ancient Mariner by Samuel Taylor Coleridge, 1797-1798

 

2 Thanks to Kevin McCaleb with the City of Lake Oswego for this data.

All photos by Bruce Rottink.

Recycling the Forest: Year 3

By Bruce Rottink, Volunteer Nature Guide and Retired Research Forester

 

The plants growing at Tryon Creek State Natural Area (TCSNA) require a supply of nutrients to stay healthy and keep growing.  An important part of supplying those nutrients is the decay of dead organic matter like leaves and branches.  This decay process releases the chemicals in the dead leaves and branches so those nutrients can be reused by plants that are still growing.

 

Study Procedure

To study this process, I collected leaves, branches or cone scales of several species of trees found at TCSNA in September 2014.  I only collected fresh materials which had recently fallen to the ground.  Within two days I placed these in wire mesh (screen) “envelopes” and fastened the envelopes to the ground with nails.  During the first part of the study I took photographs of the envelopes on a monthly or quarterly basis, but starting in September of 2016 I switched to once-a-year monitoring.  The results after one and two years have already been published in earlier Naturalist Notes.

The one-, two- and three-year end results are presented here.  While I had two envelopes for each of the materials, I only selected the most photogenic envelope for inclusion in this report.

 

Red Alder (Alnus rubra) Leaves

Red alder is a common tree at TCSNA, and is renowned for dropping its high nitrogen leaves onto the ground while they are still green.  The results from this study are seen in the photos below.

Photo 1

Left: Start (0 years). Right: After 1 year.

Photo 2

Left: After 2 years. Right: After 3 years.

 

One university research project studying the decay of dead red alder leaves indicated that 93% of the nitrogen in the alder leaves was released into the soil via the decay process the first year.  The same study found that 91% of the calcium and 97% of the potassium (both key nutrients) were also released during the first year of leaf decay1.  This relatively rapid decay of the red alder leaves was attributed to the fact that they generally contain higher levels of nutrients than most trees, thus nourishing the decay organisms.

 

Western Redcedar (Thuja plicata) Branchlets

Photo 3

Left: Start (0 years). Right: After 1 year.

 

Photo 4

Left: After 3 years. Right: After 3 years.

In sharp contrast to the red alder leaves, the western redcedar foliage contains lower levels of many nutrients, thus making it a somewhat less attractive food source for microorganisms.  In addition, redcedar foliage and twigs contain many terpenes.  Terpenes not only give the tree it’s distinctive “cedar smell,” but terpenes also have anti-fungal properties.  The major terpene in western redcedar (α-thujone ) is shown below.

 

Photo 5.jpg

Chemical structure of α-thujonecaption

 

No wonder that the cedar is decaying a little more slowly than some of the other samples.

 

Bigleaf Maple (Acer macrophyllum) Leaves

Photo 6

Left: Start (0 years). Right: After 1 year.

 

Photo 7

Left: After 2 years. Right: After 3 years.

 

With no special chemical defenses against fungi, and a fairly high nutrient content, the maple leaves are another fast decaying material.

 

Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) cone scales

These Douglas-fir cone scales were already lying on the ground at the time of collection.  The cones they came from had probably been chewed apart by a squirrel looking for the nutritious seeds.

 

Photo 8

Left: Start (0 years). Right: After 1 year.

Photo 9

Left: After 2 years. Right: After 3 years.

 

 

Superficially, the cone scales after three years look almost exactly like they did the day I put them in the bag.  Obviously the scales are made up of a very hard material, not too much different than the wood in the main stem of the tree.  Mother Nature made the cone scales very durable to protect the precious young seeds, and as a result, they are being recycled very slowly.

 

Douglas-fir branchlet

Photo 10

Left: Start ( 0 years). Right: After 1 year.

Photo 11

Left: After 2 years. Right: After 3 years.

 

Again, the Douglas-fir twigs and foliage contain some terpenes similar to the terpenes found in the redcedar, and thus, they decay more slowly than the alder and maple leaves.  Notwithstanding the resistance to decay, all the needles have fallen off the twigs.

 

The End Result

The nutrients within each of the samples used in this study will be released and then absorbed by living plants and fungus, helping the forest to grow the next generation of life.  This study shows the enormous differences in the decay times of different kinds of tree litter.  The softer materials, like the alder and maple leaves also have the highest nutrient content, and lowest concentration of anti-fungal chemicals.  But, as the old saying goes, “All in good time!”  All these nutrients will once again join living organisms, ensuring the continuation of TCSNA’s forest!

 

1Radwan, M. A., Constance A. Harrington and J. M. Kraft.  1984.  Litterfall and nutrient returns in red alder stands in western Washington.  Plant and Soil 79(3):343-351.

 

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